By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements
This can be a infrequent challenging to discover merchandise approximately X-RAY IMAGING a central authority document most likely.
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6 for lead, concrete, gypsum wallboard, steel, and plate glass (Appendix B). 6 to obtain xbarrier. 8, may be calculated based on the model of Archer et al. (1983) for broad-beam transmission (Appendix A): Ν TU Κ P γ β ---------------------- + ----1 2 α = ---------- ln Pd P – x pre . 1 of Appendix B. 3 / 51 Shielding for Secondary Barriers The barrier transmission factor [Bsec(xbarrier)] that reduces Ksec(0) (the air kerma from unshielded secondary radiation at a distance dsec) to P/ T for secondary radiation is: 2 P d sec -.
In some special cases, such as a nursing station or outdoor sidewalk, the distance from the barrier to the nearest routinely occupied area may be considerably greater. 3 Occupancy Factors The occupancy factor (T) for an area is defined as the average fraction of time that the maximally exposed individual is present while the x-ray beam is on. Assuming that an x-ray unit is randomly used during the week, the occupancy factor is the fraction of the working hours in the week that a given person would occupy the area, averaged over the year.
In some cases, however, it may be prudent to ignore the preshielding. For example, in cross-table lateral examinations the beam may not always be fully collimated to the patient and cassette. 6. The examples given in Section 5 show computations of barrier requirements with and without preshielding for completeness. 3 30 2 a Since patient attenuation is ignored, potential variations in image-receptor attenuation from different manufacturers is not a significant factor. 2. 1 CONCEPTS AND TERMINOLOGY / 45 appropriate rests with the qualified expert.
Structural Shielding Design for Medical X-Ray Imaging Facilities by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements