By Phil Spector
This publication offers a wide range of equipment appropriate for interpreting information into R, and successfully manipulating that facts. as well as the integrated services, a few available programs from CRAN (the complete R Archive community) also are lined. the entire equipment provided make the most of the middle beneficial properties of R: vectorization, effective use of subscripting, and the correct use of the various features in R which are supplied for universal info administration projects. such a lot skilled R clients observe that, specifically while operating with huge info units, it can be priceless to take advantage of different courses, significantly databases, together with R. for that reason, using databases in R is roofed intimately, besides tools for extracting information from spreadsheets and datasets created through different courses. personality manipulation, whereas occasionally ignored inside R, can also be coated intimately, permitting difficulties which are frequently solved by way of scripting languages to be performed fullyyt inside of R. For clients with adventure in different languages, instructions for the potent use of programming constructs like loops are supplied. on account that many statistical modeling and snap shots capabilities desire their info provided in a knowledge body, suggestions for changing the output of standard features to information frames are supplied through the publication.
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For MySQL these keywords include server, user, password, port, and database; for PostgreSQL, substitute username for user. Once you’ve got a connection to the ODBC source, the sqlQuery function allows any valid SQL query to be sent to the connection. This will be the case even if SQL is not the native language of the underlying database. 5 Accessing a MySQL Database 51 entire result of the query. The max= argument to sqlQuery will limit the number of rows returned, and can be followed by repeated calls to sqlGetResults (also using appropriate max= arguments) to process a query in smaller pieces.
To get just the unique values in a sequence, the unique function can be used. duplicated(x) will return a logical vector which will be true for the unique values. In both cases, the results will be in the order that the values are encountered in the vector being studied. The rle (run-length encoding) function can be used to solve a variety of problems regarding consecutive identical values in a sequence. The returned value from rle is a list with two components: values, a vector which contains the repeated values that were found, and lengths, a vector of the same length as values which tells how many consecutive values were observed.
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Data Manipulation with R (Use R!) by Phil Spector