By Jean-Denis G.G. Lepage
In the course of the heart a long time, castles and different fortified constructions have been a standard characteristic of the eu panorama. As crucial powers rose and fell, the lack of confidence of the time encouraged a revival of fortification thoughts first brought within the Roman Empire. regardless of obstacles in development concepts and manpower, medieval fortifications have been constantly tailored to fulfill new political conditions and guns expertise. this is an illustrated advisor to the structure of medieval fortifications, from the 1st castles to the fortified towns of the 15th and 16th centuries. In enormous quantities of special and carefully researched pen-and-ink drawings, artist Jean-Denis G.G. Lepage introduces the reader to a heterogeneous team of constructions whose detailed features exhibit the advance and variety of ecu medieval army structure. every one drawing is observed via distinct textual content describing varieties of structures (e.g., moat-and-bailey castles), integrated defenses (arrow splits, pepper-pot towers), and specific castles and towns (the Mont-Saint-Michel, town of Jerusalem). components of medieval struggle and weaponry also are coated in drawings and textual content
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Additional resources for Castles and Fortified Cities of Medieval Europe: An Illustrated History
Falconry was an art and a science demanding 5Z Castles and Fortified Cities of Medieval Europe Castle Penaran (Spain). The castle Penaran was situated in southern Castille. Just like castles Penafiely Soria, Berlanga and Gormaz, it belonged to a chain of fortresses con structed along the river Douro in the 11th century to defend the region against the Moors. Penaran included a massive square tower and a crenellated enceinte reinforced by tow ers following the outline of the hill. depart the keep without a strong armed escort.
Its height increased the domi nance of the defenders and worsened the inferior position of the attackers. The imposing mass of the great-tower was a deterrent to attackers and ostentatiously reflected the presence, the power and the authority of the lord. From the 11th till the first half of the 12th century, keeps offered a reasonably good solution to security problems because of the simplicity and inadequacy of siege methods. The defense afforded by these masonry mastodons was more passive than active, but it allowed a handful of defenders to resist a fairly large besieging force.
Light was feeble, coming from a few loopholes or nar row windows which also let cold drafts penetrate; at night they were shielded by cloth or closed by wooden shutters, and the only light was provided by smoky torches, lanterns and guttering candles. In spite of wood burning in the fireplace, the hall was swept by stench, cold and drafts. Humidity dampened the walls, and the 54 2—Military Architecture from the 10th to the 12th Centuries Reconstruction of castle Montfoort (Netherlands). Montfoort was situated on the Yssel River west of Utrecht; like Oostvoorne, it was a waterburcht.
Castles and Fortified Cities of Medieval Europe: An Illustrated History by Jean-Denis G.G. Lepage