By Michael J.S. Tevesz, Peter L. McCall
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Additional info for Biotic Interactions in Recent and Fossil Benthic Communities
Reish and Alosi, 1968; Ockelmann and Vahl, 1970; Roe, 1975) but such aggressive interactions are also known to occur in unrelated forms. Witte and DeWilde (1979), for example, have reported aggressive encounters between an arenicolid polychaete and a nereid polychaete where the tip of the tail of the arenicolid may be eaten by the nereid. In many of these encounters, neither individual is eaten or damaged, rather one moves away; thus, I have discussed them under competition. 1. Patterns Associated with Different Types of Predators Are there particular patterns of distribution, abundance, and sizes of infauna that one can ascribe to the activities of a particular category of predator?
The situation usually discussed is that of two organisms that settle and establish themselves in an environment and then interact for common resource(s) that is in limiting supply. If the organisms interact aggressively, then one may observe exclusion on a local scale through emigration of one or both of the individuals. , Connell, 1963; Richards, 1969). Effective lateral emigration may not, however, be possible for organisms living in very large, very dense assemblages. , nereid polychaetes (Evans, 1973)], the loser of the encounter may either be eaten or at least badly wounded or often may swim up into the water column and try to establish itself elsewhere (Evans, 1973; Roe, 1975) assuming it is not eaten by a predator.
From the Ordovician, Biding and Toomey (1972) describe such boundaries be- Biotic Interactions in Recent Marine Sedimentary Environments 19 tween areas stabilized by presumed algal mats and sediments destabilized by burrowers. Similarly the clumps of epifauna and semiepifauna described by Levinton and Bambach (1975) from the Silurian were surrounded by bioturbated sediments. Levinton and Bambach (1975) and Watkins (1978) also described other areas from the Silurian where large areas of sediment were bioturbated and the preserved fauna was overwhelmingly dominated by nuculoid bivalves.
Biotic Interactions in Recent and Fossil Benthic Communities by Michael J.S. Tevesz, Peter L. McCall