By B. A. Rubin
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Extra resources for Biochemistry and Physiology of Plant Immunity
T A B L E 2. ) ( A C C O R D I N G TO G O R L E N K O , C H I N N O V AND L E V K I N A , Species A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. E. brassicae Sacc. tenuis Nees. tenuis Nees. tenuis Nees. tenuis Nees. tenuis Nees. tenuis Nees. tenuis Nees. Source of fungus Type of nutrition Apple leaves Pear leaves Carrot roots Cabbage leaves Birch seeds Clover seeds Sainfoin seeds Peppers Paper Forest soil Field soil Parasite Parasite Parasite Parasite Fac. parasite Fac. parasite Fac. parasite Saprophyte Saprophyte Saprophyte Saprophyte 1957) Amino nitrogen 4Ί4 4-27 5-09 5-77 9-59 10-26 11-43 16-10 16-31 22-50 29-43 Considerable accumulation of amino nitrogen in the environment after the growth of saprophytic forms would seem to indicate a more vigorous extracellular enzyme system of these organisms.
This special characteristic is also met with in other fungi, for example in Rhizophlyctis rosea (Stanier, 1942). Media in which nitrogen is present as ammonia, or as compounds which liberate ammonia when broken down, are particularly favourable to the growth of Colletotrichum oligohaetum (Touze, 1957). Many fungi are known, however, which develop badly in media containing ammonium salts, while nitrates are beneficial to the growth of their mycelium (Tandon and Grewel, 1956). Various mineral elements, in particular micro-elements, are just as essential for the vital activity of fungi as for any other living organism.
A number of reports, which have appeared in recent years, indicates that such an effect can depend on enzymes located on the surface of the cells. Surface location has been shown for yeast invertase (Dennis, Rothstein and Meier, 1954), for ascorbicoxidase of Myrothecium verrucaria (Mandels, 1953), for yeast phosphatase (Rothstein and Meier, 1948, 1949) and for diphosphopyridine-nucleotidase of Neurospora crassa conidia (Zalokar and Cochrane, 1956). Sussman (1957) in his latest report suggests that the systems synthesizing extracellular enzymes of micro-organisms, are also located on the surface.
Biochemistry and Physiology of Plant Immunity by B. A. Rubin