By Peter C. Mundy PhD
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Additional resources for Autism and Joint Attention: Development, Neuroscience, and Clinical Fundamentals
Indeed, gene expression has stochastic characteristics (Fraser & Marcotte, 2004). We must embrace the stochastic nature of ASD. , 2006). However, we should not abandon the search for single dimensions of development that, in stochastic combination with other dimensions and factors, give rise to ASD. , Gleick, 1987; Thelen, 1989; Bertalanffy, 1968). Systems perspectives acknowledge that linear deterministic 14 AUTISM AND JOINT AT TENTION models rarely hold for natural and especially biological processes.
This is critical to understand, because revolutions in the field of ASD research that are expected in genomics and neuroscience may be absolutely reliant on the precision of phenotypic descriptions of ASD (Konopka & Geschwind, 2010). The observation that BAS and BIS may affect ASD, but are probably not central to the nature of ASD, is illustrative of this point. There is much to be learned from animal models of ASD. However, to the extent that an animal model of ASD is based on manipulations that give rise to aloof/avoidant or active but odd behaviors, caution in interpreting the validity of the model may well be advisable.
The role of motivation has most often been described in terms of three possibilities, and a fourth one has emerged more recently. First, individuals with ASD may engage in less attention to people and joint attention because the act of looking at people is aversive. To the best of my knowledge, this notion was first proposed by Tinbergen and Tinbergen (1972). , Wing & Ricks, 1977; Mundy & Sigman, 1989c). , Chevallier, Kohls, Troiani, Brodkin, & Schultz, 2012; Dawson, Webb, & McPartland, 2005; Mundy, 1995).
Autism and Joint Attention: Development, Neuroscience, and Clinical Fundamentals by Peter C. Mundy PhD