By Paolo Varriale
Austro-Hungarian produced a chain of negative fighter forms resembling the Phönix D I and Hansa-Brandenburg D I throughout the early phases of the warfare, and it used to be now not till licence-built examples of the battle-proven Albatros and D II and D III started to achieve Fliegerkompagnien, or Fliks, in may well 1917 that the fortunes of pilots started to search for. not like the German-built Albatrosen, which at the start suffered wing mess ups in flight, the Oeffag plane have been way more strong than German D IIs and D IIIs. additionally they displayed more suitable velocity, climb, manoeuvrability and infinitely more secure flight features. Such attributes have been used to the entire through the entire top Austro-Hungarian aces, together with Brumowski, Arigi, Kiss and Linke-Crawford, who fought Italian pilots in Hanriots and SPADs, in addition to British pilots in Camels and Bristol combatants. The exploits of Austro-Hungarian aces have been first and foremost dropped at the eye of English-speaking readers within the Eighties during the pioneering paintings of Martin O'Connor. an extra 30 years of extra examine has allowed Paolo Varriale to combine and replace his paintings, rectifying a few inaccuracies and including new information and a great number of unpublished images. The cautious crosschecking of Allied resources with Austrian and German files shape the root for a close reconstruction of the dogfights fought by way of the prime aces. This painstaking study permits many myths to be uncovered and error to be corrected. The publication will disguise using Albatros opponents at the Italian and jap Fronts, from the fighters' preliminary arrival in mid 1917 via to the final days of battle. it's going to additionally chart the careers of the Austro-Hungarian aces that flew the D II and D III, their successes and their defeats, with more information approximately their own heritage and their post-war lives within the international locations born from the cave in of the Hapsburg Empire. a few forty nine pilots completed acedom in the course of international warfare 1, and the majority of those pilots made their claims flying the 586 Oeffag-built Albatrosen.
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The ensuing deadlock left some 12,000prisoners-among them 7,000 South Koreans, 3,000 Americans, and almost 1,000 British-in the hands of the enemy. The treatment they received varied according to the time and circumstances of their capture. The North Korean army, whether advancing arrogantly or in panicky retreat, spared little concern for prisoners, at times taking none or shooting those already in custody. Army Maj. Gen. William F. Dean, himself a prisoner of the North Koreans, recalled that American pilots who parachuted safely after bombing or strafing towns north of the 38th parallel could expect no mercy from any civilians who might capture them.
By mid-March, after Ridgway ’s troops had dealt the Chinese several sharp blows, MacArthur told reporters that the mission of his command was to unify the two Koreas. Although the President in the discouraging days following China’s intervention had issued a directive warning against unauthorized 34 The Air War over Korea statements on the conduct of the war, MacArthur received no rebuke. Since Ridgway’s Eighth Army was approaching the 38th parallel, Truman hoped to capitalize on the reversal of Chinese fortunes, and possibly forestall an enemy counterthrust, by offering to negotiate an end to the fighting.
On the 15th of that month, before the Wonsan invasion force had left port, General 24 The Air War over Korea MacArthur arrived at Wake Island where he assured President Truman that the Chinese were no cause for concern. China had threatened to enter the war if the United Nations forces drew too near to the Yalu, but these warnings were dismissed as propaganda. Not even the sighting on October 18 of 100 fighters parked on the airfield at Antung in Manchuria caused alarm. When the Chinese struck, they attacked piecemeal.
Austro-Hungarian Albatros Aces of World War 1: Aircraft of the Aces by Paolo Varriale