By Steven M. Downing, Rachel Yudkowsky
Evaluation in overall healthiness Professions schooling is the 1st complete textual content for future health professions - humans in instructing, study, management, pupil checking out and pros in medication, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy and different future health fields. advent to overview within the future health professions / Steven M. Downing and Rachel Yudkowsky -- Validity and its threats / Steven M. Downing and Thomas M. Haladyna -- Reliability / Rick D. Alexson and Clarence D. Kreiter -- Generalizability concept / Clarence D. Kreiter -- facts of checking out / Steven M. Downing -- usual environment / Rachel Yudkowsky, Steven M. Downing, and Ara Tekian -- Written checks : constructed-response and selected-response codecs / Steven M. Downing -- Observational evaluation / William C. McGahie, John Butter, and Marsha Kaye -- functionality assessments / Rachel Yudkowsky -- Simulations in evaluate / William C. McGahie and S. Barry Issenberg -- Oral examinations / Ara Tekian and Rachel Yudkowsky -- overview portfolios / Ara Tekian and Rachel Yudkowsky
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Documentation of these ﬁve sources of validity evidence consists of the systematic collection and presentation of information and data to present a convincing argument that it is reasonable and defensible to interpret the assessment scores in accordance with the purpose of the measurement. The scores have little or no intrinsic meaning; thus the evidence presented must convince the skeptic that the assessment scores can reasonably be interpreted in the proposed manner. Content Evidence For our written assessment example, documentation of validity evidence related to the content tested is the most essential.
How scientiﬁcally sound was the measurement? Are the numbers/ scores scientiﬁcally reproducible? And so on and on with inquiry of this type, posing and answering essential questions about the assessment, the answers to which help provide meaning to the numbers. This scientiﬁc inquiry aimed at establishing a certain meaning or interpretation for assessment data is the essence of validity. What is Validity? Validity refers to the evidence presented to support or to refute the meaning or interpretation assigned to assessment data or results (Messick, 1989).
Coding a questionnaire demographic question about gender as a nominal response such as 1 = Female and 2 = Male is an example of a nominal number scale. The numbers have no inherent meaning, only the arbitrary meaning assigned by the researcher. The key point is that we can do only very limited mathematical procedures, such as counting, on nominal numbers. We cannot legitimately compute averages for nominal numbers, since the average “score” has no meaning or interpretation. An ordinal number has some inherent meaning, although at a very basic level.
Assessment in Health Professions Education by Steven M. Downing, Rachel Yudkowsky