Analogical Reasoning in Children - download pdf or read online

By Usha Goswami

ISBN-10: 0863773249

ISBN-13: 9780863773242

Analogical reasoning is a basic cognitive ability, interested by category, studying, problem-solving and inventive pondering, and may be a uncomplicated development block of cognitive improvement. although, for a very long time researchers have believed that kids are incapable of reasoning by means of analogy. This e-book argues that this can be faraway from the case, and that analogical reasoning should be on hand very early in improvement. contemporary examine has proven that even 3-year-olds can remedy analogies, and that babies can cause approximately relational similarity, that is the hallmark of analogy. The e-book strains the roots of the preferred misconceptions approximately kid's analogical skills and argues that after youngsters fail to exploit analogies, reason why they don't comprehend the family underlying the analogy instead of simply because they're incapable of analogical reasoning. the writer argues that childrens spontaneously use analogies in studying, and that their analogies can occasionally lead them into misconceptions. within the "real worlds" in their study rooms, childrens use analogies while studying easy talents like examining, or even infants appear to use analogies to profit concerning the global round them.

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In the intensive sibling play therapy group, of the 20 children recruited to participate in sibling play therapy, 10 completed the study (50% dropout rate). Children received either individual play therapy (experimental group) or sibling play therapy (comparison group) for 12 sessions within a two- to three-week period, or no treatment (control group). 9, respectively. The gender distribution was similar, with all three groups having slightly more girls. The treatment groups almost matched in ethnicity; however, there was a greater difference in ethnicity between the treatment groups and the control group.

Mastery is a primary healing component of the play therapy process. This is accomplished when the child moves from the role of a victim to the role of control bearer by identifying with various play characters within the scenario. Mastery assists the child in reincorporating a positive self-concept that extends beyond the relationship with the primary caregiver (Friedman, 1983; Gil, 1991; Perez, 1987). Ultimately, increased personal awareness yields new behavioral responses, and the child learns to own behaviors rather than depersonalize them (Axline, 1955; Rogers, 1955, 1961).

Detailed case studies supported play therapy as a beneficial intervention because it allowed "children to re-enact the traumatic event, remember and feel the feelings that accompanied the event, and restructure it in such a way as to provide meaning for the event" (p. 86). It is not uncommon for child witnesses of domestic violence to be preoccupied with issues related to safety, control, and conflict. Many child witnesses appear to be preoccupied with safety and self-preservation, which is believed to be representative of high levels of anxiety pertaining to obtaining safety from the perpetrator (Kot, 1995).

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Analogical Reasoning in Children by Usha Goswami

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