By Paul A Collinvaux, Paulo E. De Oliveira, Enrique Moreno
Amazon will turn out a strong software for ecologists and weather modelers. It additionally comprises short studies of pioneering pollen paintings within the Amazon up to now; sections on pollen equipment, pollen records, paleoecology, and lake coring tools.
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Additional info for Amazon: Pollen Manual and Atlas
Radiocarbon ages of the wood samples turned out to be close to 30,000 years. This was a glacial age. Liu’s pollen analysis showed pollen of lowland forest, but in addition pollen of some trees now largely confined to the high Andes 1000 m higher up, trees like Podocarpus and Alnus. We published the result as a note in Nature in 1985 as showing that cooling of more than 4°C prevailed at all elevations, from mountain top to the bottom lands of the Amazon (Liu and Colinvaux, 1985). Mera was a break, but not definitive.
The C4 and CAM photosynthetic mechanisms are adaptations to life in stressful conditions, particularly to aridity or heat (Colinvaux, 1993a). Typically the system is used by a cactus or a bromeliad epiphyte, in both of which it is an adaptation to relative aridity: in a cactus the adaptation is to life in a desert, in an epiphyte to a life without roots in the soil. C4 photosynthesis in particular is used by savanna grasses, where it adapts them to the hot and dry conditions in which they are typically found.
5). This piston design has the added advantage of being able to lock into the sample holder at the end of a drive. At the end of a drive the tube is filled with sediment and the piston is at the top of the sample tube, pressed against the tube holder. But now one must pull the tube out, creating a powerful suction that will tend to pull both piston and sediment out of the tube again. To prevent this, the piston must be pulled up at the same rate as the sample tube. We can do this by pulling on the piston cable—one person pulling up rods A guide to piston coring of lake sediments 35 while a second pulls up the cable at the same rate.
Amazon: Pollen Manual and Atlas by Paul A Collinvaux, Paulo E. De Oliveira, Enrique Moreno