A General Treatise on the Manufacture of Vinegar: by Hippolyte Dussauce PDF

By Hippolyte Dussauce

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If heated in a digester with 5 parts of water at 320°, a gum-like product, similar to dextrin, is obtained; but if the tempera- ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES 43 ture is raised to 356°, much sugar is formed. Hydrated starch heated in ·a closed tube at 212° to 266°, is converted into a paste; at 305° it forms a transparent solution, which on cooling deposits minute granules soluble in water at 158° to 212°, but unaltered in properties from the original starch. A continued ebullition for several days, converts starch into a bitter matter, and undetermined gummy principles.

All these marvellous creations are very simple effects produced by the intervention of those forces which, under the names of affinity, caloric, electricity, attracticm, or cohesion, are the causes of all the combinations and decompositions. The compounds of nitrogen with oxygen present a very remarkable relation between the proportions of their elements. The volume of nitrogen remaining the same in all. that of oxygen varies as follows:100 volumel nitrogen with 100" .. 100" .. 100" .. 100" .. 60 yolumeB oz,YgeD form 100" ..

Concentrated sulphuric acid, when rubbed up with starch, yields a gummy mass, which liquefies and forms soluble compounds with lead, lime, and baryta. If the acid is diluted with 2 parts of water, starch is carbonized, and formic acid produced. Ammonia alone has no action on starch. A lye containing 2 per cent. of soda swells the grains to 60 or 70 times their original bulk. Fused hydrate of potassa transforms it into formic, acetic, and metacetonic acids. When rubbed with strong potassa lye, it unites and forms a transparent gelatinous compound, soluble in water and alcohol, from which starch is precipitated by acids.

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A General Treatise on the Manufacture of Vinegar: Theoretical and Practical by Hippolyte Dussauce

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